In 1986, following Mechanon’s almost-successful attempt to take over the United States, Congress authorized the Department of Justice to create a new federal law enforcement organization solely to pursue supercriminals.

This was also an effort to deflect critics of the government’s policy, at that time, of barring UNTIL from United States territory. The Department of Justice responded by creating the Paranormal Research and Investigation Mission of the United States — or PRIMUS, for short.

PRIMUS was initially conceived of as an agency like UNTIL, in that it would employ normal human operatives equipped with advanced technology designed for combatting superhuman and paranormal menaces. However, Dr Lucius Alexander, one of the scientists assigned to work with the agency, alerted its leaders to a discovery he had recently made – a super-serum he called Cyberline.

When given to certain subjects on a regular (daily) basis, Cyberline granted them superhuman or near-superhuman strength and reflexes. Aside from some “mildly addictive” properties, Cyberline seemed to have no negative side effects. Top Justice officials quickly restructured PRIMUS to make use of the Cyberline concept. The leader of the organization would now be the subject most responsive to Cyberline, code-named the ‘Golden Avenger’. His primary field operatives would be other Cyberline-compatible agents, called ‘Silver Avengers’ (many of whom would lead regional offices). The remainder of the organization’s employees – the vast majority of its agents – would be ordinary humans equipped with the latest technology.

For the past 24 years, PRIMUS has proven to be an invaluable asset of the U.S. government. Even after UNTIL was allowed to operate in American territory in 1993, PRIMUS retained the primary responsibility for combating superhuman crime in the United States. The organization has regional offices in several cities (including Boston, New York City, Washington D.C., Atlanta, Miami, Vibora Bay, New Orleans, Chicago, Millennium City, Seattle, Denver, San Francisco, and Los Angeles), and smaller offices in others. It maintains a force of approximately 12,000 field agents, and has been instrumental in ending numerous superhuman threats to the people and security of the United States.

As of 2002, the Golden Avenger is Daniel James Johnson (known to his friends as “DJ”), a former F-14 pilot who succeeded Robert Kaufman in the position in 1997. He’s well known in Washington for his no-nonsense attitude, take-charge personality, and encyclopedic knowledge of superhumans. PRIMUS agents often work with superheroes, though their reactions to costumed crimefighters are mixed. On the one hand, many agents owe their lives to superheroes, and have a healthy respect for their abilities, bravery, and heroism. This attitude is pronounced in field offices where the Silver Avenger(s) favour heroes, such as Millennium City, New York, and San Francisco. On the other hand, many agents regard superheroes, at least in part, as “renegades” and “unprofessional” – people who hinder PRIMUS’s mission as much as help it in many cases. Several Silver Avengers, particularly those heading the Miami and Seattle offices, share this opinion.


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